Keyword Research: A Beginner’s Guide For New Bloggers
Keyword research is, for a scarcity of a greater word, the key to monumental visitors to your blog. It’s what helped me propel this blog to new and nice heights!
On this publish, I’ll present you tips on how to do keyword research so you can even generate natural visitors to your blog. Sounds good? Then let’s get into it!
What is Keyword Research?
Earlier than we get into the meat of bones on methods to do Keyword research, we have to know what it’s first. Keyword research is the pillar of a profitable website positioning marketing campaign. Principally, the aim is so that you can discover key phrases that a number of folks search on Google.
You additionally want to find out how simple it’s to get your weblog on prime of Google seek for that Keyword. As soon as you discover these Keyword, use them to create content material that Google loves.
What I do imply right here?
It implies that you could observe the finest on-page website positioning practices in your put up in relation to your Keyword. Fairly lower and dry, proper? WRONG.
Whereas Keyword research is straightforward in idea, it is usually deceptively tough. Researching for one of the best keyword to your blog takes time. There’s extra toKeyword research than simply discovering search phrases that generate a number of searches from customers each month.
We’ll get to those components as we transfer ahead within the article. However right here’s one factor I’ve achieved through the years to develop my weblog visitors utilizing Keyword research: I grouped related keyword collectively to create content material that targets a number of keyword directly.
Doing so allowed me to rank for these search queries for a similar web page. Don’t imagine me?
And all the pieces is by design! I know that I’ll be rating for them as a result of I optimized the submit for these keyword. This technique of mine is what I’m going to share with you in a while this submit!
So right here’s the important thing to attracting LOTS of tourists to your blog: It’s not in regards to the quantity of blog posts you publish often. Additionally, it’s not simply in regards to the high quality of your submit and the way helpful it’s to your viewers.
So what’s it then?
It’s about how sensible you method keyword research! If you wish to smarten up about keyword research, then preserve studying!
Types of Keyword Research
Now, onto the meat and bones of this put up! There are two kinds of keyword Research: traditional and competitive. Each observe completely different processes however will help you discover the nice keyword in your blog.
With traditional keyword research, you generate keyword concepts from a seed keyword. The seed keyword, on this case, is your short-tail keyword. Mainly, you wish to extract long-tail and medium-tail keyword concepts that comprise your seed keyword.
Extra importantly, you wish to discover key phrases which can be straightforward to rank for on natural search and have lots of month-to-month searches. You’ll determine these Keyword utilizing completely different metrics out there in your chosen keyword instruments.
Right here’s an instance on find out how to do conventional keyword Research on Ubersuggest:
On the left, you will note an inventory of keyword ideas for the seed keyword “content material advertising and marketing.” Clicking on every keyword will present you the Google SERP on the best facet of the display screen.
View the pages rating for every and decide whether or not or not you’ll be able to rank on the primary web page for this keyword together with your content material. Traditional keyword research works greatest for beginner bloggers. They haven’t revealed blog posts but and need to discover Keyword they will optimize for of their content material.
On the draw back, the normal method received’t present you details about your opponents. And that’s why we have now the second kind of keyword research.
2. Competitor Based
Not like the traditional approach, you’ll provide you with concepts from Keyword your rivals are rating for. Usually, you sort within the area URL of your competitor in your premium keyword instrument.
It ought to then course of the keyword that it’s rating for on natural search. Additionally, you need to see the place of every keyword on SERPs. After getting extracted their keyword, you possibly can select which of them to optimize on your weblog.
What makes competitor-based keyword Research stronger than the standard methodology You acquire entry to confirmed key phrases which you can goal.
Give it some thought for a second:
In case your rivals are rating for them, then so do you have to! Nonetheless, this keyword Research sort solely works you probably have a longtime blog with pages rating for sure search phrases. Additionally, it’s essential use premium keyword instruments to conduct competitor-based Research.
And as you realize, these instruments break the bank. Nonetheless, these drawbacks don’t take away the truth that competitor-based keyword analysis is arguably the higher method in the long term.
Within the screenshot above, I’m utilizing Ahrefs to search out keyword that contentmarketinginstitute.com is rating for. Not solely do you see the amount and problem of every keyword. You additionally see the place the place the web page on the positioning is rating on Google natural search.
Later, we’ll discuss how you can successfully run a competitor-based keyword Research utilizing Ahrefs and different instruments. For now, nonetheless, you might want to know how you can decide the worth of a keyword primarily based on completely different variables. And we’ll talk about essentially the most essential ones under.
Factors of Keyword Research
Wish to know why keyword research is troublesome? Right here’s why: No key phrases are ever the identical.
Even when they share frequent phrases collectively, they’re nonetheless basically distinctive from one another. Individuals search sure Keyword extra typically than others. Some are a lot simpler to rank for on search outcomes than others.
Utilizing this info, you possibly can slender down your keyword record to ones that work to your benefit, specifically:
Keyword with excessive search quantity and low competitors! To do that, you should manually analyze every keyword in your Research utilizing various factors. They may assist you decide which of them to optimize for.
Beneath are the elements I’m referring to:
1. Search Intent
To do keyword research successfully, you need to discover keyword that you really want your viewers to make use of for locating your blog.
So how do you do this?
You want to perceive search intent. It explains why individuals typed in that phrase on search engines like google. By researching for keyword with the search intent that matches your weblog, you drive extra certified site visitors to your pages. In consequence, you get to extend your gross sales, e mail subscribers, and others!
Under are three forms of search intent:
Individuals seek for informational keyword in the event that they wish to know the reply to a query. For example, “promoting footwear” is a keyword phrases. Nevertheless, its intent is unclear in the intervening time. To make a keyword’s intent informational, it’s good to reply this query:
What do people wish to find out about this subject?
Generally, keyword that begin with an interrogative phrase or the 5 Ws: who, what, when, the place, why (and 1 H: how) are prime examples of informational keyword. To search out this utilizing Ahrefs, sort within the keyword within the search bar of Keyword Explorer.
To filter the Keyword with informational intent from the outcomes, click on Questions from the left sidebar.
From right here, you will note a listing of Keywords associated to promoting sneakers that start with any of the 5 Ws and 1 H.
The search phrases come within the type of a query. Because of this the consumer desires to seek out out all there’s to learn about promoting footwear. Informational keyword are excellent for bloggers whose objective is to share info.
They will construct a content material technique revolving round these keyword to allow them to develop their visitors. However how about bloggers who wish to earn cash? Let’s say they use their weblog to promote services and products and to advertise affiliate packages. Then they should optimize for keyword with the subsequent kind keyword intent.
I’m fairly certain you used Google Search to check services and products earlier than making a call. Whether or not you realize it or not, you used commercial keywords in your purchaser’s journey. Individuals use these keyword if they’ve plans on shopping for one thing however should not certain which one but.
An instance can be “best professional drones.”
The person desires to know the top-of-the-line industrial drones out there. Many of the outcomes from Google SERPs are listing posts from e-commerce and evaluation websites:
Normally, a keyword (often a services or products) has industrial intent in case you add the next affixes to it:
- Top 10
As talked about, e-commerce and assessment websites profit probably the most from optimizing for this keyword intent.Most assessment web site homeowners are affiliate entrepreneurs who suggest affiliate merchandise to purchase for his or her audience.
They assist information clients make the perfect resolution based mostly on the accessible info. In return, they earn a fee from each profitable transaction!
Let’s say your viewers is aware of what to purchase already. What’s the subsequent step?
That brings us to the third and final kind of keyword intent.
In contrast to business intent, keyword with transactional intent level you to the place and how you should word the product you need.
For instance, I wish to Word a DJI Mavic 2 Pro as my professional drone.
Listed below are affixes added to the keyword that modified its intent right into a transactional one:
- Buy DJI Mavic 2 Pro
- DJI Mavic 2 Pro deals
- DJI Mavic 2 Pro discount codes
- DJI Mavic 2 Pro shipping
As you possibly can see, there’s a clear intent from the person to purchase the drone judging from these key phrases. I imply, no person would seek for low cost codes and offers concerning the product except they’re excited by shopping for it! True sufficient, the outcomes on Google SERPs present the completely different low cost codes you should utilize to purchase this drone.
For bloggers with merchandise to promote on their website, it is advisable to analysis for keyword with transaction intent. They need to assist deliver in additional conversions to your weblog should you optimize them accurately. Now that we’ve coated search intent in depth, let’s speak about search quantity.
5. Search Volume
Search volume refers back to the variety of occasions customers searched the keyword in a month. Ideally, you wish to goal keyword with excessive search quantity to your blog.
Right here’s the easy math:
Extra searches means extra probabilities for folks to seek out your website on Google. In fact, that is solely attainable in case you rank on the primary web page of search outcomes to your keyword.
So that you have to be asking your self: So does that imply it is best to at all times target keywords with excessive search volume?
There’s extra to a keyword that the amount of searches each month. Actually, the issue under is arguably probably the most essential one on this listing.
6. Keyword Difficulty
Keyword difficulty refers back to the diploma of competitors you need to face in getting your blog to rank for a keyword. Understanding how keyword problem works is essential to your keyword analysis. As talked about earlier, you shouldn’t simply discover key phrases that generate plenty of month-to-month searches.
Right here’s why:
They’re essentially the most aggressive to rank in natural search. keyword with excessive search quantity promise the best visibility for websites that rank on the highest three spots in Google Search. That’s why virtually all websites need to get a bit of the motion and understandably so!So as a substitute of optimizing for a keyword that everyone desires to rank for, why not journey the street much less traveled as a substitute?
In different phrases:
Why not target keyword with low competitors?
The dearth of competitors offers your blog a a lot simpler path to rank on high on SERPs. Nonetheless, and right here’s the kicker with key phrases with low competitors: There have abysmal search volumes. We’re speaking right here of lower than 100 searches in a month!
Clearly, that doesn’t discredit the worth that keyword problem brings to the desk. So right here’s why rating for key phrases with low competitors is straightforward: The websites that rank on the primary web page for the keyword aren’t optimized.
Additionally, it’s potential that the keyword doesn’t have a particular content material rating on SERPs. These are big alternatives so that you can capitalize on!
keyword with low competitors is a first-rate attribute of long-tail keyword. In a nutshell, these are search phrases that include at the least 4 keywords.
These may need low search volumes. However long-tail key phrases normally are available query format. All bloggers equivalent to your self must do is present the very best reply to those queries. Then, optimize the web page so you’ll be able to rank on high of search outcomes for the keyword!
The advantage of rating on high of search outcomes for a long-tail keyword is you get pleasure from increased conversions.
The explanation for the excessive conversion charges of long-tail keyword is that they reply a particular query. By creating content material that solutions the wants of customers, you compel them to take motion in your blog. It’s that straightforward!
Subsequently, it’s good to discover long-tail keyword to enrich your content material creation. Now, I do know your chomping on the bit to begin with the precise means of keyword Research.
Since we simply wrapped up the essential elements in figuring out the most effective key phrases to your Research, let’s bounce proper into it then!
How to Do Keyword Research: Two Types
You possibly can go for free and paid methods to do keyword research.
In case you don’t have a finances accessible to your keyword analysis, then the free method is for you. The one downside with the free methodology, which you will notice later, is you don’t have entry to options that may pace up the research course of.
Due to this fact, it’s greatest to go the paid route through the use of any of the best keyword research tools accessible. They make it easier to filter which among the many keyword are the best to rank and group related keyword collectively to assist facilitate you in growing your weblog’s content material technique.
So let’s start with the free method:
Find out how to Use Google Keyword Planner For Free
Google Keyword Planner is completely free to make use of. You don’t have to spend a single penny on AdWords advertisements to entry it. All you want is to have a Google account. Click on right here to get a free Google account if you happen to don’t have one already.
Nevertheless, right here’s what often occurs whenever you attempt to use the software:
You’ll be required to create an AdWords marketing campaign.
Google may be very severe with this that it typically looks as if you can’t presumably use the software with out first giving them some money. Nicely, there’s excellent news: You possibly can truly acquire entry to the software even with out operating an AdWords advert marketing campaign. You merely have to bypass a couple of steps.
Click here to get began, then click on on the daring “Go to Keyword Planner” button as proven under:
NOTE. They could ask you to re-enter your password for verification (which is regular).
Now right here’s an necessary half:
You’ll see a web page that reads “what’s your principal promoting purpose?” You don’t wish to choose any of the three choices supplied. Beneath the supplied choices, click on the small “Swap to Professional Mode” hyperlink as an alternative.
On the following web page, choose the “Create an account with no marketing campaign” choice, and click on the “Continue” button to proceed.
Click on the blue “Continue” button on the following display. (No! Google is not going to ask in your bank card particulars).
Then, this screen will show up (Congrats, you’re all done):
Now, click on on the “Explore your account” hyperlink to go to the following web page. Right here, click on on the “Instruments” tab on the higher proper nook of the menu bar and choose “Keyword Planner.”
You now have full entry to the fantastic Google Keyword Planner! You don’t must enter your billing info or run an AdWords advert.
How to Use Google Keyword Planner
To get began, Google Keyword Planner affords you two choices, that are:
- Discover new keywords: This lets you get new keyword ideas that can assist you to get to the individuals involved in what you supply
- Get search volume and forecasts: With this selection, you’ll have the ability to see search quantity and different metrics on your keyword, and forecasts on how their attainable future efficiency
You can too click on on the “How to Use Keyword Plannerr” hyperlink below the 2 choices to be taught extra concerning the instrument, however I’m positive you gained’t be needing that after studying this text. The 2 choices will take you to the Keyword Planner; nonetheless, what you’ll see will probably be a bit completely different relying in your alternative.
In the case of performing keyword Research, these instruments are greater than sufficient to present you 1000’s of potential keywords. For readability, this instrument is particularly created with PPC advertisers in thoughts. So the instrument has numerous options (such because the keyword bidding options) that you simply gained’t want for those who’re utilizing the instrument to search out keywords.
That stated, it’s time to learn to carry out keyword research utilizing every of the instruments within the Google Keyword Planner.
Let’s discover every in additional element.
1. Discover new keywords
You’ll need to begin right here if you wish to uncover new keyword ideas. Based mostly on Google’s directions, merely “Enter words, phrases, or a URL related to your business,” as you’ll be able to see on the screenshot beneath, Google will then deliver again some keyword options.
It’s price mentioning that the worth you’ll get from the instrument is solely based mostly on the data that you just put right here. So you need to be strategic concerning the keyword you enter into this subject. That will help you get probably the most out of Google Keyword Planner, let me break down every of the three choices for you.
Enter Words: These are single word which might be associated to your services or products (for example, “skin care” or “SEO”). This allows you to entry Google’s database of keywords for various niches and industries.
Phrases: That is the place you’ll enter your “seed keywords” and get an inventory of associated terms. It’s finest to enter a minimum of two keywords right here. For example, if you happen to function an ecommerce web site that sells bracelets, you’d need to enter words like “tiffany bead bracelet” and “pandora bracelet charms” right here.
A URL related to your business: That is particularly meant for Adwords advertisers. Nevertheless, you’ll be able to typically discover a number of good keywords right here utilizing your web site’s homepage… or a blog publish out of your web site.
Listed below are the keyword options for “ skin Care”:
There are a complete of 888 keyword ideas.
For every keyword suggestion, you will notice:
- Keyword ideas
- Average monthly searches
- Top of page bid (low range)
- Top of page bid (high range)
The great factor is that you just’re not restricted to solely single or two words; phrases work as nicely. And also you’re allowed to enter as much as ten seed keywords at a time.
Additionally they have the choice to make use of a website or URL as your seed.
Nonetheless, the dangerous factor is that no matter you do, Google received’t present you various thousand keyword recommendations per search.
Even once I entered as much as ten seed keywords (which is the utmost variety of key phrases you possibly can enter) and a URL, I nonetheless solely received 4,424 keyword recommendations.
2. Get search volume and forecasts
That is the proper place to start out if you have already got a listing of key phrases that you simply need to see metrics for.
Simply copy and paste them in and click on on the “Get started” button:
You may be taken to the Forecasts part. Right here, you’ll nonetheless see the identical “Keywords Results Web page” you see once we used the “Discover new keywords” choice.
The little distinction is that:
- You get knowledge solely on the terms you looked for
- Google will let you know what number of impressions and clicks you’re prone to get from the keywords you entered
Nearly all of this information is clearly meant for AdWords advertisers.
However right here’s slightly trick:
Click on on the “Historical Metrics Metrics” tab, and Google will present you 12-month common search volumes for the keywords you entered: Nearly all of this information is clearly meant for AdWords advertisers.
These are the very same ranges you see if you use the “Discover new keywords” tool.
That’s it about utilizing the Google Keyword Planner for keyword research. Now, let’s shortly discover ways to do the identical utilizing Neil Patel’s Ubersuggest.
How to Use Ubersuggest for Keyword Research
Ubersuggest is a brand new keyword research tool launched by Neil Patel, and I’ve bought to confess, it’s a really great software for search engine optimization.
On this part, we’re going to undergo the step-by-step strategy of performing keyword research with this highly effective tool.
That mentioned, let’s get began:
The keyword research strategy of Ubersuggest is damaged down into three sections:
- Keyword ideas
- SERP analysis
The overview appears like this for the keyword “skincare.”
On the primary part, you’ll see a graph that breaks down the keyword’s search quantity over time.
It’ll present you the search quantity to your chosen keyword in any nation and language for the final 12 months. On the graph, you possibly can see if the keyword is gaining in recognition or declining or if it’s a seasonal keyword.
Other than that, it additionally breaks down the cost per click (CPC), the SEO difficulty (SD), in addition to the paid issue. The problem scores vary from 1 to 100. In different words, the upper the quantity, the harder it will likely be to compete for the keyword, and vice versa.
The second a part of the Ubersuggest keyword research course of is the concepts part. Utilizing our “skincare” keyword for instance once more, click on on the “View all Keyword Ideas” button to view all of the keyword ideas to your target keyword:
Right here, you’ll see a listing of associated keyword concepts. On the screenshot under, you’ll be able to see we’ve got 348 keywords to research:
The keywords are generated utilizing each AdWords suggestions, and Google Counsel. This fashion, you may get a whole record of potential keywords it’s possible you’ll need to target.
And identical to the overview part, you’ll be able to equally see quantity information for each keyword in addition to itscost per click (CPC), SEO difficulty (SD), and paid difficulty (PD) information.
Moreover, on the correct aspect of the “keyword ideas repott” part, you will note the entire web sites which might be rating within the prime 100 of the search engine outcome pages (SERPs) for that keyword.
That is the keyword ideas report half that I really like probably the most because it additionally exhibits you the estimated customer rely primarily based on ranks. The metric checks whether or not a keyword is seasonal and if there are any paid listings or wealthy snippets for the time period.
Other than displaying you the estimated visits primarily based on rating, you’ll equally see every URL’s area rating and what number of social shares it has. As you might need identified, area rating ranges between 1 and 100 – and the upper the quantity area has, the extra authoritative it’s and the harder it is going to be to beat the website.
And for the social shares, that is an indicator of how a lot folks cherished the actual web web page. If it has extra social shares, then the web site’s viewers will need to have actually loved it.
Ubersuggest additionally offers you the power to Export your outcomes to in CSV format:
The ultimate characteristic within the keywords thought report is the filtering:
Right here, you may simply filter the keywords primarily based in your most popular knowledge level. From limiting the outcomes to only “keyword options or “related keywords” or by filtering keywords primarily based on their competitors and recognition.
And if there are too many outcomes, you too can embrace or exclude sure phrases or terms. With this, it is possible for you to to filter the outcomes even quicker.
The following part is the SERP evaluation, which mainly reveals you a easy view of the highest 100 web sites which might be rating for any given keyword.
A number of individuals carry out keyword research in several areas and languages, and you are able to do that with all of the experiences, the SERP evaluation included.
How to do Keyword Research With SEMrush
SEMrush is likely one of the finest and hottest search engine optimizations instruments on the web, and on this part, you’re going to find out how you need to use SEMrush for conducting keyword research in any area of interest.
Earlier than we begin, you will have a SEMrush account – and should you don’t have an account already, merely click on right here to get 30 days free trial of SEMrush.
With that out of the best way, let’s rapidly soar to the method of discovering good keywords with SEMrush.
Go to the SEMrush dashboard, and click on on the “Overview” tab (on the left-hand sidebar) below keyword analytics choices:
Right here, you can find a search bar the place you can be required to enter your principal matter from which you wish to discover good keywords to focus on.
You may equally select your required/target country (which is extremely advisable) for which you favor an viewers of. For this instance, I’m nonetheless going to make use of our keyword “skincare,” and beneath is the end result you’ll see:
Within the screenshot above, now we have 4 completely different studies for our chosen dad or mum keyword “skincare.” Let’s shortly have a look at that:
1. Organic Search
This tells you ways many individuals seek for the keyword in Google (49.5K on this instance), and what number of web sites are rating for that keyword (3.1B). That’s fairly aggressive as you may see.
2. Paid Search
This part tells you if any manufacturers or web sites are bidding for that keyword by way of paid advertisements. It additionally reveals you the typical value per click on of the time period, in case you additionally wish to bid for it.
3. CPC Distribution
This half reveals the typical CPC of the time period primarily based in your chosen country.
That is really top-of-the-line key components to take a look at whereas performing keyword analysis. It usually reveals you the month-to-month distribution of the time period, which can allow you to know if a keyword will drive you site visitors all of the 12 months spherical or if it’s seasonal.
These are essential data that’ll offer you an perception into what you’re about to enter so that you’ll know for those who really stand an opportunity of rating in any respect.
Phrase Match and Related Keywords
Proper beneath the “keywords overview” part, you’ll find the “phrase match and associated keywords” choice.
That is the place vital keyword research occurs.
What we did within the first half was simply to seek out some dad or mum keywords which might finally type the pillar for our content material technique. It’s nearly inconceivable to focus on them or any related dad or mum keywords, particularly should you’re simply beginning as such key phrases are at all times tremendous aggressive.
In that case, the thought is to seek out the low-hanging fruits (much less competitive keywords) and make the most of them to construct a powerful rating profile to your web site first.
How to Use SEMrush Phrase Match Option
Phrase match is a wonderful possibility whenever you already know what matter or product to focus on, but it surely’s too broad. With the “phrase match” characteristic, you’ll be capable to discover each potential keyword that’s carefully associated to your guardian keywords along with various phrases.
Aside from that, you possibly can equally use the phrase match characteristic to find a bunch of long-tail keywords and options to product names you possibly can goal in your blog posts.
Within the screenshot above, you’ll be able to see that we’ve got quite a lot of keywords to work on. It’s also possible to choose several types of key phrases, which embody:
- Broad match: These are the broadest vary of potential keywords which might be nonetheless in some way associated to your searched keyword.
- Phrase match: Keywords that embody the precise phrase of your searched keyword
- Exact match: These are the precise keywords or shut variants of your seed keyword
- Related keywords: Because the identify suggests, these are the keywords which might be extremely associated to your seed keyword
You even have the choice to both see all of the keyword solutions or to see solely the “question related” keywords:
After which, there’s the “keyword magic tool” characteristic, which mainly helps you to select precisely what the urged keywords must be about. For instance, within the screenshot beneath, I select to see “products related” keywords:
Then, in the event you discover any keyword you want from the urged record, you’ll be able to simply click on on the little (+ signal) so as to add it among the many keywords you’ll correctly analyze later. From the picture above, you’ll be able to see the pointer on the keyword “facial skincare products record.”
Lastly, on every of the SEMrush keyword solutions, you’ll have the ability to see the:
- Keyword volume
- Keyword trend
- Keyword difficulty (KD)
- Cost per click (CPC)
- SERP feature
- Results in SERP
The keyword problem calculator is a helpful tool which tells you the way difficult to rank every keyword is.
Principally, it measures between 1 and 100. The upper the KD, the harder it’ll be to compete for the keyword, and vice versa, and this makes the method of discovering good keywords a lot quicker.
That’s it about keyword research.
Why You Need to Start Using SEMrush Today
SEMrush is undoubtedly among the finest search engine optimisation instruments on the market, and it’s utilized by plenty of search engine optimisation lovers and bloggers all around the world. The instrument combines a bunch of databases information to give you correct keyword research details.
For the time being, SEMrush is utilized by greater than 1 million individuals, and it has greater than 800 million keywords information, that are generated from 30 geodatabases with the main points of greater than 130 million domains worldwide. Even in case you are a beginner, SEMrush can flip you into an search engine optimisation professional inside the shortest attainable time (not exaggerating).
To place succinctly, it’s the most effective instrument for all of your search engine optimisation duties, and it may possibly show you how to with the next:
- Keyword research
- Content research
- Backlink analysis
- Competitor’s research
- Find out the traffic of any website
- Domain comparison
- Detailed website audit to know if your website issues and how to fix it
In case you’re actually severe with SEO, then I’d recommend you get SEMrush in the present day. The nice factor is you can really use it for 30 days with out paying a dime. And that’s all there is to it! If you have any questions, feel free to drop a comment below.